Description

Kardan Journal of Economics and Management Sciences (KJEMS), is an academic, peer-reviewed journal publishing original and impactful articles in the fields of economics, finance, management sciences, and commerce. Published quarterly (March, June, September and December) and open access by the Department of Research and Development (DRD) on behalf of Kardan University.

The journal includes a wide range of fields in its discipline to create a platform for the authors to make their contribution to the journal and the editorial office promises a peer review process for the submitted manuscripts for the quality of publishing.

All articles published in KJEMS are published Open Access under a CC BY 4.0 licence.

KJEMS is published by DRD on behalf of Kardan University. KJEMS is published under an open access arrangement. All charges for publishing open access articles in KJEMS are sponsored by the Kardan University, whose address is at Parwane Du Square, Kabul Afghanistan. There is no charge to the author.

  • Chief Editor

    • Dr. Nassir Ul Haq Wani
      n.wani@kardan.edu.af
      Kardan University - Kabul, Afghanistan
  • Advisory Editorial Board

    • Dr. Jasdeep Kaur Dhami
      bawa_mangat@yahoo.com
      Professor and Director CT University - Punjab, India
    • Dr. Afzal Ur Rehman
      afzalindian@gmail.com
      HoD, Department of Commerce, B.S Abdur Rehman Crescent University - Tamil Nadu, India
    • Dr. Bahaudin G Mujtaba
      mujtaba@nova.edu
      Professor, Nova Southeastern University - Florida, USA
    • Dr. Veland Ramadani
      v.ramadani@seeu.edu.mk
      Assosciate Professor, South East European University - Tetovo, Republic of Macedonia
    • Dr. Makhmoor Bashir
      makhmor786@gmail.com
      Assistant Professor, Qassim University - Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
    • Dr. Neeru Sidana
      neeruvrinda@gmail.com
      Assistant Professor, Lovely Professional University - Punjab, India
    • Dr. Subhendhu Dutta
      subhenduiim@gmail.com
      Assosciate Professor, Indian Business School - Hyderabad, Telangana, India
    • Dr. TawheedNabi Baba
      tawheed1990@gmail.com
      Assistant Professor, Lovely Professional University, Punjab, India - Punjab, India
    • Dr. Tazeem Ali Shah
      tazeem.ali@iiu.edu.pk
      Lecturer, International Islamic University - Islamabad, Pakistan
    • Dr. Mohd Anuar Bin Arshad
      anuar_arshad@usm.my
      Senior Lecturer, University Sains Malaysia - Penang, Malaysia
    • Prof. Murtaza Masud Niazi
      mniazi@kardan.edu.af
      Kardan University - Kabul, Afghanistan
    • Prof. Shahid Shams
      s.shams@kardan.edu.af
      Kardan University - Kabul, Afghanistan
    • Dr. Muhammad Tahir
      tahirkhanzaee@gmail.com
      Lecturer, Nizwa College of Technology - Sultanate of Oman
    • Dr. Nadia Mansour
      mansour.nadia@hotmail.com
      Visiting Researcher, University of Salamanca - Madrid, Spain
    • Dr. Lyla Abdul Latif
      latif.lyla@gmail.com
      Research Fellow, Cardiff University - UK
    • Dr. Nafay Choudhury
      nc585@cam.ac.uk
      Jeremy Haworth Research Fellow, University of Cambridge - UK
    • Dr. Nikhil Singh Yadav
      nikhilsinghyadav@gmail.com
      Assistant Professor, University School of Business, Chandigarh University - Punjab, India
    • Dr. Farha Naz Khan
      f16farha@iima.ac.in
      Assistant Professor, University School of Business, Chandigarh University - Punjab, India
    • Dr.Habib ul Zadran
      h.zadran@kardan.edu.af
      Dean, Faculty of Economics, Kardan University - Kabul, Afghanistan
    • Dr Amruta Deshpande
      amruta.deshpande@indiraisbs.ac.in
      Assistant Professor Indira School of Business Studies PDGM - India

Before you start

Please contact the Editor or the Journal Editorial Office with any questions about the status of your manuscript (pre-decision or post-acceptance). These details can be found in the Editorial Team section.

Author responsibilities

Our goal is to provide you with a professional and courteous experience at each stage of the review and publication process. There are also some responsibilities that sit with you as the author. Our expectation is that you will:

  • Respond swiftly to any queries during the publication process.
  • Be accountable for all aspects of your work.
  • Treat communications between you and the journal editor as confidential until an editorial decision has been made.
  • Read about our research ethics for authorship. These state that you must:
    • Include anyone who has made a substantial and meaningful contribution to the submission (anyone else involved in the paper should be listed in the acknowledgements).
    • Exclude anyone who hasn’t contributed to the paper, or who has chosen not to be associated with the research.
  • If your article involves human participants, you must ensure you have considered whether or not you require ethical approval for your research, and include this information as part of your submission. Find out more about informed consent.

Research and publishing ethics

Our editors and employees work hard to ensure the content we publish is ethically sound. To help us achieve that goal, we closely follow the advice laid out in the guidelines and flowcharts on the COPE (Committee on Publication Ethics) website.

We have also developed our research and publishing ethics guidelines. If you haven’t already read these, we urge you to do so – they will help you avoid the most common publishing ethics issues.

A few key points:

  • Any manuscript you submit to this journal should be original. Exceptions to this rule are pre-print and conference papers. If any substantial element of your paper has been previously published, you need to declare this to the journal editor upon submission.
  • Please note, that the journal editor may use Turnitin to check on the originality of submissions received.
  • Your work should not have been submitted elsewhere and should not be under consideration by any other publication.
  • If you have a conflict of interest, you must declare it upon submission; this allows the editor to decide how they would like to proceed.
  • By submitting your work to KJEMS, you are guaranteeing that the work is not in infringement of any existing copyright.

Third party copyright permissions

Prior to article submission, you need to ensure you’ve applied for, and received, written permission to use any material in your manuscript that has been created by a third party. Please note, we are unable to publish any article that still has permissions pending. The rights we require are:

  • Non-exclusive rights to reproduce the material in the article or book chapter.
  • Print and electronic rights.
  • Worldwide English-language rights.
  • To use the material for the life of the work. That means there should be no time restrictions on its re-use e.g. a one-year licence.

Please take a few moments to read our guide to publishing permissions to ensure you have met all the requirements, so that we can process your submission without delay.

Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) Guidelines

We are a signatory of the Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) Guidelines, a framework that supports the reproducibility of research through the adoption of transparent research practices. That means we encourage you to:

  • Cite and fully reference all data, program code, and other methods in your article.
  • Include persistent identifiers, such as a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), in references for datasets and program codes. Persistent identifiers ensure future access to unique published digital objects, such as a piece of text or datasets.
  • Follow appropriate international and national procedures with respect to data protection, rights to privacy and other ethical considerations, whenever you cite data.

Kardan Journal of Economics and Management Sciences (KJEMS) is dedicated and committed to following best practices on ethical matters, errors and restrictions. It is necessary to agree upon standards of expected ethical behaviours for all parties involved: authors, editors, and reviewers.

Our ethic statements are largely based on the guidelines and standards developed by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). All authors, editors and reviewers should adhere to the standards set out below.


Responsibilities of Authors

  • By submitting a manuscript to KJEMS, author(s) warrant that the manuscript is an original work and that it has neither been published previously nor is currently being considered for publication elsewhere.
  • Authors should acknowledge all sources of data used in the research and cite publications that have been influential in the research work.
  • Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the submitted manuscript. The corresponding author should ensure that all authors have agreed to its submission for publication.
  • Authors should disclose in their manuscript any financial or other substantive conflict of interest that might be construed to influence the results or interpretation of their manuscript. All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed.
  • Authors should promptly notify the editors for corrections when authors discover significant errors or inaccuracies in their published works.
  • Authors should ensure that any studies involving human or animal subjects conform to national, local and institutional laws and requirements.

Responsibilities of Chief Editor

  • Editors have ultimate responsibility for deciding if a manuscript submitted to Kardan Journal of Economics and Management Sciences (KJEMS) should be published. Chief Editors' decisions to accept or reject a manuscript should be based on the peer-review result and editorial boards' reviews and articles' importance.
  • Editors should evaluate each manuscript solely on its intellectual contents without regard to the race, color, gender, sexual orientation, religious beliefs, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the author(s).
  • Editors must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers and the publisher.
  • Editors will not use unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript for their own research without written consent of the author(s).

Responsibilities of Reviewers

  • Reviewers should conduct the review objectively and express their views clearly with supporting arguments. Personal criticism of the author is inappropriate.
  • Reviewers must ensure that the authors have acknowledged all the sources of data used in the research. Any statement that an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation.
  • Reviewers must not disclose any information regarding submitted manuscript. All manuscripts received for review are to be treated as privileged information.
  • Reviewers should notify the editors when they could not review the manuscript within stipulated time or have a potential conflict interests in performing the review. They should also not accept manuscript review assignments for which they feel unqualified.

Respecting intellectual property rights is a foundational principle of the KJEMS’s Codes of Ethics. Plagiarism, in which one misrepresents ideas, words, computer codes or other creative expression as one's own, is a clear violation of such ethical principles. Plagiarism can also represent a violation of copyright law, punishable by statute. Plagiarism manifests itself in a variety of forms, including:


  • Verbatim copying, near-verbatim copying, or purposely paraphrasing portions of another author's paper
  • Copying elements of another author's paper, such as equations or illustrations that are not common knowledge, or copying or purposely paraphrasing sentences without citing the source
  • Verbatim copying of portions of another author's paper with citing but not clearly differentiating what text has been copied (e.g., not applying quotation marks correctly) and/or not citing the source correctly.

Self-plagiarism is a related issue. In this document we define self-plagiarism as the verbatim or near-verbatim reuse of significant portions of one's own copyrighted work without citing the original source. Note that self-plagiarism does not apply to publications based on the author's own previously copyrighted work (e.g., appearing in a conference proceedings) where an explicit reference is made to the prior publication. Such reuse does not require quotation marks to delineate the reused text but does require that the source be cited.

Plagiarism can be said to have clearly occurred when large chunks of text have been cut-and-pasted. Such manuscripts would not be considered for publication in KJEMS. Plagiarism in any form, at any level, is unacceptable and is considered a serious breach of professional conduct, with potentially severe ethical and legal consequences. All authors are deemed to be individually and collectively responsible for the content of papers published by KJEMS.

Manuscript requirements

Before you submit your manuscript, it’s important you read and follow the guidelines below. You will also find some useful tips in our structure your journal submission how-to guide.

Manuscripts and all editorial correspondence should be submitted at: kjems@kardan.edu.af/n.wani@kardan.edu.af addressing the ‘Chief Editor’, Kardan Journal of Economics & Management Sciences.

Format

Article files should be provided in Microsoft Word format

While you are welcome to submit a PDF of the document alongside the Word file, PDFs alone are not acceptable. LaTeX files can also be used but only if an accompanying PDF document is provided. Acceptable figure file types are listed further below.

Article length / word count

Articles should be up to a maximum of 7000-9000 words in length. This includes all text, for example, the structured abstract, references, all text in tables, and figures and appendices.

Article title

A concisely worded title should be provided.

Declaration of conflicting interests

KJEMS encourages authors to include a declaration of any conflicting interests and recommends you review the good practice guidelines.

Publication ethics

  • KJEMS is committed to upholding the integrity of the academic record. We encourage authors to refer to the Committee on International Standards for Authors and view the Publication Ethics page.
  • Articles should be written in MS Word, Times New Roman font, and should be submitted only in soft copy.Manuscripts should normally not exceed 7,000-9000 words and should be submitted in duplicate with the cover page bearing only the title of the article, author/s’ names, designations, official addresses, phone/fax numbers, and email addresses. Author/s’ name should not appear on any other page. Commentaries on contemporary issues should not exceed 3000 words.
  • All articles must be accompanied by an abstract of 150–200 words and 4–6 keywords.
  • The JEL classification code for the articles should be included after Keywords.
  • Use British spellings in all cases rather than American spellings (hence, ‘programme’ not ‘program’, ‘labour’ not ‘labor’, and ‘centre’ and not ‘center’).
  • Use ‘z’ spellings instead of ‘s’ spellings. This means that words ending with ‘-ise’, ‘isation’, etc., will be spelt with ‘z’ (e.g., ‘recognize’, ‘organize’, ‘civilize’).
  • Use single quotes throughout. Double quotes only to be used within single quotes. Spellings of words in quotations should not be changed.
  • Quotations of 45 words or more should be separated from the text and indented with one space with a line space above and below.
  • Notes should be numbered serially and presented at the end of the article. Notes must contain more than a mere reference.
  • Use ‘twentieth century’, ‘1980s’. Spell out numbers from one to nine, 10 and above to remain in figures. However, for exact measurements, use only figures (3 km, 9 per cent, not %). Use thousands and millions, not lakhs and crores.
  • Use of italics and diacriticals should be minimised, but used consistently.
  • Tables and figures to be indicated by numbers separately (see Table 1), not by placement (see Table below). Present each table and figure on a separate sheet of paper, gathering them together at the end of the article. All Figures and Tables should be cited in the text. Sources for figures and tables should be mentioned irrespective of whether or not they require permissions.
  • A consolidated listing of all books, articles, essays, theses and documents referred to (including any referred to in the tables, graphs and maps) should be provided at the end of the article. Guidelines specified in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th edition) must be followed.

Author details

The names of all contributing authors should be added to the Scholar-Online submission; please list them in the order in which you’d like them to be published. Each contributing author will need their own Scholar-Oneline author account, from which we will extract the following details:

  • Author email address (institutional preferred).
  • Author name. We will reproduce it exactly, so any middle names and/or initials they want featured must be included.
  • Author affiliation. This should be where they were based when the research for the paper was conducted.

In multi-authored papers, it’s important that ALL authors that have made a significant contribution to the paper are listed. Those who have provided support but have not contributed to the research should be featured in an acknowledgements section. You should never include people who have not contributed to the paper or who don’t want to be associated with the research.

Biographies and acknowledgements

If you want to include these items, save them in a separate Microsoft Word document and upload the file with your submission. Where they are included, a brief professional biography of not more than 100 words should be supplied for each named author.

Research funding

Your article must reference all sources of external research funding in the acknowledgements section. You should describe the role of the funder or financial sponsor in the entire research process, from study design to submission.

Structured abstract

All submissions must include a structured abstract, following the format outlined below.

These four dimensions accompanying explanations must always be included:

  • Purpose
  • Design/methodology/approach
  • Findings
  • Originality

The following three sub-headings are optional and can be included, if applicable: like research limitations/implications, practical implications, social implications, and originality.

The maximum length of your abstract should be 250-300 words in total, including keywords and article classification.

Keywords

Your submission should include up to 6 appropriate and short keywords that capture the principal topics of the paper. Please note, while we will always try to use the keywords you’ve suggested, the in-house editorial team may replace some of them with matching terms to ensure consistency across publications and improve your article’s visibility.

Article classification

During the submission process, you will be asked to select a type for your paper; the options are listed below. If you don’t see an exact match, please choose the best fit:

You will also be asked to select a category for your paper. The options for this are listed below. If you don’t see an exact match, please choose the best fit:

  • The construction or testing of a model or framework
  • Action research
  • Testing of data, market research or surveys
  • Empirical, scientific or clinical research
  • Papers with a practical focus

Viewpoint. Covers any paper where content is dependent on the author's opinion and interpretation. This includes journalistic and magazine-style pieces.
Technical paper. Describes and evaluates technical products, processes or services.
Conceptual paper. Focuses on developing hypotheses and is usually discursive. Covers philosophical discussions and comparative studies of other authors’ work and thinking.
Case study. Describes actual interventions or experiences within organizations. It can be subjective and doesn’t generally report on research. Also covers a description of a legal case or a hypothetical case study used as a teaching exercise.
Literature review. This category should only be used if the main purpose of the paper is to annotate and/or critique the literature in a particular field. It could be a selective bibliography providing advice on information sources, or the paper may aim to cover the main contributors to the development of a topic and explore their different views.
General review. Provides an overview or historical examination of some concept, technique or phenomenon. Papers are likely to be more descriptive or instructional (‘how to’ papers) than discursive.

Headings

Headings must be concise, with a clear indication of the required hierarchy.
The preferred format is for first level headings to be in bold, and subsequent sub-headings to be in medium italics.

Notes/endnotes

Notes or endnotes should only be used if absolutely necessary. They should be identified in the text by consecutive numbers enclosed in square brackets. These numbers should then be listed, and explained, at the end of the article.

Figures

All figures (charts, diagrams, line drawings, webpages/screenshots, and photographic images) should be submitted electronically. Both colour and black and white files are accepted.

There are a few other important points to note:

  • All figures should be supplied at the highest resolution/quality possible with numbers and text clearly legible.
  • Acceptable formats are .ai, .eps, .jpeg, .bmp, and .tif.
  • Electronic figures created in other applications should be supplied in their original formats and should also be either copied and pasted into a blank MS Word document, or submitted as a PDF file.
  • All figures should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals and have clear captions.
  • All photographs should be numbered as Plate 1, 2, 3, etc. and have clear captions.

Tables

Tables should be typed and submitted in a separate file to the main body of the article. The position of each table should be clearly labelled in the main body of the article with corresponding labels clearly shown in the table file. Tables should be numbered consecutively in Roman numerals (e.g. I, II, etc.).

Give each table a brief title. Ensure that any superscripts or asterisks are shown next to the relevant items and have explanations displayed as footnotes to the table, figure or plate.

References

All references in your manuscript must be formatted using one of the recognized APA 7th edition styles. At the end of your paper, please supply a reference list in alphabetical order using the style guidelines below. Where a DOI is available, this should be included at the end of the reference.

For books

Hochschild, A.R. (1983). The managed heart:
Commercialization of human feeling. Berkeley, CA:
University of California Press.e.g. Harrow, R. (2005), No Place to Hide, Simon & Schuster, New York, NY.

For book chapters

Hort, L., Barrett, M., &Fullop, L. (2001).Doing hard labor: Gendered emotional labor in academic management. Retrieved from www.mngt.waikato.ac.nz/ejrot/cms conference/2001/Papers/Gender/Hort

For journals

Surname, initials (year), "title of paper", paper presented at [name of conference], [date of conference], [place of conference], available at: URL if freely available on the internet (accessed date).

e.g. Aumueller, D. (2005), "Semantic authoring and retrieval within a wiki", paper presented at the European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC), 29 May-1 June, Heraklion, Crete, available at: http://dbs.uni-leipzig.de/file/aumueller05wiksar.pdf (accessed 20 February 2007).

For working papers

Harris, L.C. (2002). The emotional labor of barristers: An exploration of emotional labor by status professionals. Journal of Management Studies, 39(4), 553–584.

For other

The reference to other works should be provided in the text using citations written in the author-date method.Author-date method Follow the author-date method of in-text citation, e.g., (Morris, 2000).
Quotes
When directly quoting from a work, include the page number in the citation.
Citation styles
One Work by One Author: (Morris, 2000)

One Work by Multiple Authors: (Morris and Feldman, 2000)One Work by Three or More Authors:
(Morris et al., 2000) Works with No Author: Cite the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year, for example, (‘Study Finds’, 1982).

Two or More Works by Different authors in One Citation: (Morris, 1980; Rafaeli, 1988; Sachs and Blackmore, 1998)
Two or More Works by the Same Author(s) in One Citation: (Sachs and Blackmore, 1998, 1999)
Two or More Works Published in the Same Year by the Same Author(s): (Morris, 1980a, 1980b, 1980c)
Authors with the Same Last Name: To prevent confusion, use first initials with the last names: (T.V. Rao, 2001; M.K. Rao, 1998).

Work discussed in secondary source: In the text, name the original work, and give a citation for the secondary source. For example, if Seidenberg and McClelland's work is cited in Coltheart et al. and you did not read the original work,
list the Coltheart et al. reference in the References. In the text, use the following citation: In Seidenberg and McClelland's study (as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, and Haller, 1993)....

Book reviews must have details like name of author/editor and book reviewed, place of publication and publisher, year of publication, number of pages and price.

There are a number of key steps you should follow to ensure a smooth and trouble-free submission.

Double check your manuscript

Before submitting your work, it is your responsibility to check that the manuscript is complete, grammatically correct, and without spelling or typographical errors. A few other important points:

  • Give the journal aims and scope a final read. Is your manuscript definitely a good fit? If it isn’t, the editor may decline it without peer review.
  • Does your manuscript comply with our research and publishing ethics guidelines?
  • Have you cleared any necessary publishing permissions?
  • Have you followed all the formatting requirements laid out in these author guidelines?
  • Does the manuscript contain any information that might help the reviewer identify you? This could compromise the anonymous peer review process. A few tips:
    • If you need to refer to your own work, use wording such as ‘previous research has demonstrated’ not ‘our previous research has demonstrated’.
    • If you need to refer to your own, currently unpublished work, don’t include this work in the reference list.
    • Any acknowledgments or author biographies should be uploaded as separate files.
    • Carry out a final check to ensure that no author names appear anywhere in the manuscript. This includes in figures or captions.

The submission process

All manuscripts should be submitted through our editorial system by the corresponding author.

A separate author account is required for each journal you submit to. If this is your first time submitting to this journal, please choose the Create an account or Register now option in the editorial system. If you already have an KJ login, you are welcome to reuse the existing username and password here.

Please note, the next time you log into the system, you will be asked for your username. This will be the email address you entered when you set up your account.

Don't forget to add your ORCiD ID during the submission process. It will be embedded in your published article, along with a link to the ORCiD registry allowing others to easily match you with your work.

Don’t have one yet? It only takes a few moments to register for a free ORCiD identifier.Visit the Scholar-Online support centre for further help and guidance.

What you can expect next

You will receive an automated email from the journal editor, confirming your successful submission. It will provide you with a manuscript number, which will be used in all future correspondence about your submission. If you have any reason to suspect the confirmation email you receive might be fraudulent, please contact our Rights team at kjems@kardan.edu.af/n.wani@kardan.edu.af